Author

Water, a Vital Resource: From a National Security Perspective

This article was originally published in the strategic analysis notebook Emerging Global Crises, December, 2023


Summary

In the 21st century, humanity is at a turning point: a crossroads where the convergence of developing global crises poses the possibility of unleashing consequences of historic magnitude. In the past, waters flowed in great quantity and in balance with the natural environment. Today, however, they are under increasing stress due to several factors such as climate change, rapid industrialization, and uncontrolled urban sprawl. In this context, the importance of water resources goes beyond human welfare, becoming a vital issue for the survival and stability of each nation’s national security. The objective of this article is to conduct an analysis that addresses the impending water crisis and its global scope, which presents a focus on its implications for national security and the participation of the Armed Forces; in consideration of water scarcity, pollution and geopolitical tensions associated with access to this vital resource, for which a methodology of review of literature is used, accompanied by a deep reflection on the proposed topic; Therefore, the conclusion is that the Peruvian Army has a strategic role in the protection of this vital resource for the surveillance and control of critical areas, inter-institutional, multi-sectoral cooperation and multi-sectoral support are essential to ensure the water sustainability of the country. The future of water represents a national and international challenge that requires a long-term vision and concerted action.

Keywords: Climate Change, Water Scarcity, Water Resources, Sustainable Management, National Security.

Introduction

Throughout the history of humankind, water has been a vital factor shaping the destiny of nations and civilizations. From the ancient riverine cultures that flourished on the fertile plains to the maritime trade routes that connected continents, access to and control of water has been a constant concern in geopolitical chess.[1] However, in the 21st century, the world is at a crucial turning point: a crossroads where the convergence of emerging global crises threatens to unleash impacts of historic proportions.[2] According to the World Bank,[3]The global population is growing fast, and estimates show that with current practices, the world will face a 40% shortfall between forecast demand and available supply of water by 2030”. This situation is a serious problem that could have devastating consequences for humanity. Water scarcity could lead to a decrease in agricultural production, which could lead to food shortages. In addition, water scarcity could lead to conflicts between countries and regions competing for water resources.

In this geostrategic context, where political and environmental contours are inextricably intertwined, the water crisis emerges as a challenge that transcends geographical boundaries and time dimensions. Waters that once flowed abundantly and in harmony with nature face increasing pressure due to multifaceted factors: climate change, voracious industrialization, and uncontrolled urbanization.[4] In this scenario, water resources become not only crucial for human welfare, but also a matter of survival and stability in the national security of nations.

From ancient Mesopotamia, where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers fertilized civilizations and sparked rivalries, to modern scenarios where competition for fresh water threatens geopolitical stability, history has witnessed how water sources can be both a bond and a cause of conflict.[5] In Peru, a country with three watersheds (Pacific, Atlantic and Titicaca), the connection between water and history is deeply intertwined in the very essence of our identity.[6]

Water security, in essence, addresses the ability to ensure sustainable access to adequate quantities of quality water for human well-being and socioeconomic development, all while preserving the integrity of the environment;[7] this complex dynamic requires efficient and equitable management of water resources, as well as continuous adaptation to changes in water supply and demand.[8] The intrinsic importance of this concept lies in its ability to prevent adverse impacts on current and future generations.

Today, society is facing a new era of water challenges, driven by global phenomena. These include the intensification of droughts, the pollution of river basins and the degradation of aquifer sources, all of which present a crossroads requiring bold and innovative responses.[9] Therefore, an in-depth review of the multidimensional challenges of the water crisis is pertinent, from water scarcity to pollution, each phase having implications not only for environmental sustainability, but also for social cohesion and national security.[10] While analyzing these issues, it is important to consider the commitment of the Armed Forces (FFAA), particularly the Peruvian Army (EP), in its role as guardian of the resources found in the terrestrial dimension, in accordance with its primary purposes described in the constitution.

Water Scarcity: A Rising Global Threat

Growing water scarcity is an emerging crisis of global proportions that poses critical challenges to security and sustainable development worldwide. The complex interaction of factors such as climate change, population growth and overexploitation of water resources has exacerbated this problem.[11] This has even affected regions previously considered water secure.[12] Droughts and natural phenomena that are becoming more frequent and intense due to global warming have become a worrying reality in various parts of the planet; areas that historically experienced high temperatures are now facing prolonged droughts that threaten the availability of water for human consumption, agriculture and industry.[13] In this regard, the World Bank[14] notes in its publications:

Feeding 10 billion people by 2050 will require a 50% increase in agricultural production, (which consumes 70% of the resource today), and a 15% increase in water withdrawals. Besides this increasing demand, the resource is already scarce in many parts of the world. Estimates indicate that over 40% of the world population live in water scarce areas, and approximately ¼ of world’s GDP is exposed to this challenge. By 2040, an estimated one in four children will live in areas with extreme water shortages. Water security is a major – and often growing –challenge for many countries today. (para.2)

History recounts numerous conflicts and wars over water resources, where nations have faced significant tensions and disputes over access to and control of water, highlighting the strategic relevance of this resource in geopolitical developments. Concrete examples of these disputes include the conflict over the Tigris and Euphrates rivers between Turkey, Syria and Iraq, as well as the rivalry over the Nile River between African countries.[15] Thus, it follows that access to and control of water resources have become a source of geostrategic tension that has led to conflicts and competition between nations to secure their freshwater reserves.

It is important to note that Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, Bolivia, and Chile share land borders with Peru. Most of these borders, particularly in the Amazon region, are defined by long rivers. It is worth noting that many of the sources and tributaries of these rivers originate in Peruvian territory.[16] This can be considered a strategic advantage for Peru, but it also raises a potential concern for neighboring countries. The actions we take or fail to take in our territory can directly influence the quality and availability of the water resources they receive, which could have important implications for the region.[17]

This struggle for access to drinking water sources and sustainable management of shared rivers has led to disputes and tensions that may trigger conflicts at the regional level.[18] The case of the shared border aquifers between Peru and Chile exemplifies the importance of establishing bilateral agreements to avoid conflicts and guarantee equitable access to this vital resource, since both countries have economic models that depend on this important resource and, at the same time, are interested in guaranteeing the survival of their respective nations.[19] Hence, water security takes on special relevance due to the presence of shared aquifers and the need for coordination for the management of transboundary rivers.

Water crises not only impact water availability, but also have direct effects on food security, public health, and social stability, among others. Communities that depend on agriculture and fishing for their livelihoods are threatened by the lack of water, which in turn can contribute to forced migration and displacement of populations.[20] In this scenario, the sustainable and efficient management of water resources becomes a strategic priority for Peru and for the international community as a whole.[21] It is important to emphasize that this management must rely on the technical and technological advances available globally, many of which we have not yet implemented. Therefore, water security is not only essential for the subsistence of populations, but also for the economic development and political stability of nations.

Water pollution: Striving for purity and sustainability

The purity and availability of freshwater is under constant threat due to the increasing global pollution of water sources.[22] Water pollution has emerged as a critical challenge that impacts water security, public health and the sustainability of aquatic ecosystems.[23] This encompasses a wide range of sources and compounds, from industrial chemicals to agricultural wastes and urban wastes; human activities, such as the discharge of toxic chemicals, industrial wastes and untreated sewage, have led to the degradation of rivers, lakes and aquifers.[24] Pollutants can include heavy metals, agricultural and mining chemicals especially those linked to illegal mining, micro plastics and other harmful compounds. The environmental and social risks associated with water pollution are profound and pervasive even across borders. Aquatic life is threatened by the extinction of species and the disruption of aquatic ecosystems; furthermore, pollution can severely affect drinking water quality, endangering public health and increasing water quality-related diseases.[25] In Peru, water pollution is a growing concern, especially in urban and industrial areas where untreated waste discharges are polluting rivers and bodies of water.[26] Therefore, this not only affects local communities, but also impacts downstream populations that depend on the same water resources.

The fight for water purity and sustainability requires concerted action at the local, national, and international levels; stricter environmental regulations and standards are essential to control pollution in all its forms. In this regard, education and promotion of more sustainable agricultural and waste management practices can reduce the load of pollutants in water systems.[27] The protection of water sources also involves educating and raising awareness among the population about the importance of keeping water bodies clean and reducing the use of harmful chemicals.[28] Achieving sustainability involves the commitment of the different political and social actors in their different fields of action.

Water Diplomacy: Partnerships for National Security

In an interconnected world dependent on shared resources, water management transcends national boundaries and becomes a matter of international cooperation. Water diplomacy, a concept created by Peter H. Gleick, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, is a key instrument for ensuring national security and the sustainability of water sources, encouraging collaboration and the peaceful resolution of disputes over this vital resource.[29] The World Bank[30] explains:

The fragmentation of this resource also constrains water security. There are 276 transboundary basins, shared by 148 countries, which account for 60% of the global freshwater flow. Similarly, 300 aquifers systems are transboundary in nature, with 2.5 billion people worldwide are dependent on groundwater. (para.4)

The importance of water as a strategic resource has led to the creation of international agreements and conventions that seek to safeguard equitable access to and sustainable management of shared water resources.[31] For example, in South America, the Amazon Basin, which originates almost entirely in the Peruvian Andes, is one of the largest in the world and includes several countries that share the responsibility of conserving and managing its waters.[32] Thus, the development of multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder technical committees for the proper public management of water is becoming more important today.

Regional cooperation is essential to avoid situations that could generate conflicts over access to and use of water resources; bilateral and multilateral agreements allow the creation of mechanisms for dialogue and consultation between nations, fostering transparency and the building of mutual trust. These agreements establish legal frameworks for the joint management of shared rivers and basins, promoting the conservation and sustainable use of water.[33] Water diplomacy focuses on conflict prevention and strengthening strategic alliances, collaboration on joint water management projects, scientific research and infrastructure development can improve water availability and quality for all parties involved.[34] Therefore, water cooperation can be a vehicle to promote broader relations between nations and contribute to the responsible use and optimization of their available water resources, as well as to prevent future crises due to scarcity and to guarantee sustainable socioeconomic development, but mainly to ensure human survival, which is the main interest of every State.

Peru, with a rich diversity of water sources and basins shared with neighboring countries, is in a strategic position to lead water diplomacy in the region. On the one hand, the promotion of cooperation agreements and the construction of dialogue platforms are crucial steps to guarantee water security and prevent possible future tensions.[35] In this context, the Armed Forces, as a key factor in national security, can play a significant role in promoting and facilitating water diplomacy; through their relations and cooperation with the Armed Forces of other countries, they can contribute to the exchange of knowledge and best practices in water resources management.[36] In this context, the Army is one of those called upon to guarantee the control and surveillance of Peru’s water resources and to act vigilantly in the resolution of water-related disputes, preserving stability, peace and inputs for the survival and interdependence of the population.

Water diplomacy must have a comprehensive approach that goes beyond national security; therefore, it will be necessary to include environmental protection, sustainable development, self-generation, and the supply of each country’s water resources to ensure regional peace and harmony.

National Water Agenda: Strategies and Sustainable Solutions

Effective management of water resources is essential to ensure national security and the well-being of the population. Faced with the growing threat of the water crisis, it is imperative that Peru develop a comprehensive water agenda that proactively addresses the challenges and promotes sustainable solutions to ensure the availability and quality of water in the country.[37] In this regard, the implementation of clear policies and the formulation of comprehensive plans for water resources management are of utmost importance.[38] This becomes an essential pillar to ensure effective water management.[39] The State, through the National Water Authority (ANA), should reinforce its normative and regulatory framework, establishing criteria for the equitable and sustainable distribution of water sources.[40] In addition, long-term planning and the identification of critical watersheds will allow for more efficient management and an agile response to scarcity situations.

Promoting water efficiency and conservation in all sectors is essential to maximize the use of this limited resource. In principle, the implementation of technologies and practices that reduce consumption and minimize losses is crucial.[41] Simultaneously, awareness and education campaigns should be implemented to promote responsible habits in the population and in the industry (use of saline water), contributing to the preservation of water sources.[42]

Investment in modern and resilient water infrastructure is essential to meet the challenges of the water crisis. The construction of dams, efficient irrigation systems, and wastewater treatment systems will help optimize water use and reuse.[43] The practice of planting and harvesting water, as well as the implementation of real-time monitoring and management technologies, will allow a rapid response to variations in water availability.[44]

Collaboration between the public and private sectors is essential to ensure the effective implementation of the national water agenda. In principle, private investment can contribute to the development of infrastructure and advanced technologies; the creation of strategic alliances between government, academia, civil society, and the business sector will promote innovative solutions and more efficient management of water resources.[45]

Participatory and multi-sectoral governance is key to sustainable water management. First, the creation of watershed committees and the ancestral knowledge of local communities in decision making will ensure more inclusive and equitable management.[46]

Cooperation between different government entities and stakeholders will ensure a comprehensive response to water challenges;[47] being able to solve even the coexistence between agriculture and mining and responsible legal industry, by solving the scarcity or contamination of water. Avoiding the emergence of social conflicts that lead to other situations of violence generated by radical operators.

Lastly, water security should be considered a strategic priority, since access to water is fundamental for human, economic and environmental development. Furthermore, the implementation of an effective national water agenda requires a multidimensional approach that addresses the challenges from various perspectives and promotes sustainable solutions in the short and medium term.

Figure 1. National Water Agenda. Supreme Decree No. 009-2021-MINAM

Custodian of the Terrestrial Dimension and of the National Water Resources

The Armed Forces focus their fundamental role on safeguarding national interests; therefore, they are responsible for preserving the country’s water security. It is important to consider that, given the scarcity of resources for the subsistence of nations, the perspective of countries with greater presence and global power-seeking access to areas with abundant ecosystems and water sources arises, seeking to declare the Amazon and its watersheds as a world heritage site.[48] This may undermine and violate the concept of independence, sovereignty, and territorial integrity of the countries in the region.

Responsible management of these resources is crucial for sustainable development and the well-being of the population.[49] In this context, the Peruvian Navy, as an institution in charge of the control and surveillance of activities carried out in the maritime, river and lake areas, and the Peruvian Army, as an institution in charge of the custody of the land dimension, have the strategic role of protecting water sources; surveillance and control of critical areas, such as watersheds and aquifer recharge areas.[50] Therefore, it is essential to carry out these actions jointly, integrated with various authorities and with a unified approach as part of a multisectoral effort, in order to prevent any threats and/or illegal activities that may affect water availability and quality.

In the current context, competition for water resources has intensified at the global level, and water has become a strategic resource of interest to other nations, powers, and economic and commercial mega-corporations.[51] Thus, the Army must be vigilant and alert to possible attempts to control or exploit the country’s water resources to the detriment of the population and the environment.[52] This is why the protection of water resources requires coordinated action among various institutions and stakeholders.[53] Therefore, the Defense Sector must work closely with the Ministry of Environment, the National Meteorology and Hydrology Service of Peru (SENAMHI), the National Water Authority (ANA) and other governmental and civil society entities to develop joint strategies to guarantee water sustainability.

The protection of water resources is a challenge that must be faced with determination and a long-term vision, which is why it should be considered a priority in the country’s political agenda. In this context, the Armed Forces, as an institution committed to national security, should be an active advocate of this cause and promote the importance of water resources protection at all levels of government and in society in general.[54] The World Bank[55] recommends:

Information systems are needed for resource monitoring, decision making under uncertainty, systems analyses, and hydro-meteorological forecast and warning. Investments in innovative technologies for enhancing productivity, conserving, and protecting resources, recycling storm water and wastewater, and developing non-conventional water sources should be explored in addition to seeking opportunities for enhanced water storage, including aquifer recharge and recovery (para.5)

Hence, a political intent to provide multi-sectoral support is essential to achieve considerable progress in the protection of water resources and water security to ensure a prosperous and sustainable future for generations to come.

Conclusions

The growing geopolitical tensions over access to and control of water resources present a worrisome scenario; in particular, countries with rivers as natural boundaries could file lawsuits for inadequate management of these vital sources. In the case of Peru, the challenges extend to the management of aquifers shared with Chile; in this scenario, regional and international cooperation emerges as a critical component to prevent conflicts and, at the same time, preserve independence and sovereignty over water resources.

The emerging water crisis in the country requires urgent attention to the progress of the agenda set out in the Sustainable Development Goals for 2030, which should promote viable solutions; therefore, it is imperative to tangibly implement the National Policy and Strategy for water resources management, aimed at promoting efficiency and water conservation in all sectors; in addition, investment in infrastructure and modern and resilient technology becomes essential to ensure effective management of the resource. The protection and preservation of water purity and sustainability must be a top priority. In this regard, the responsibility lies with the State, civil society, and the private sector, which must collaborate to prevent and control pollution.

In this context, the fundamental strategic role of the Peruvian Army acquires a transcendental importance in the protection of the country’s water resources, as it acts as custodian of the land dimension and, therefore, of all the national resources included in it, including water sources, playing a decisive role in the control and surveillance of critical areas.

Inter-institutional, multi-sectoral cooperation and multi-sectoral support are fundamental pillars to ensure the country’s water sustainability; therefore, to face this challenge both nationally and internationally, it is imperative that Peru materializes its development model in a tangible way, incorporating practices that favor the reuse and efficiency in the use of this vital resource; jointly, the formulation of a National Security Strategy that orients the protection of water resources as one of its priorities is unavoidable. Only through political will and intention, an ethical public administration, and a long-term vision, will the country be able to move towards a more sustainable and equitable management of its water sources.

Endnotes:

  1. José Pardo de Santayana. 1997. El mundo visto desde el prisma geopolítico norteamericano. The Grand Chessboard, BasicBooks, Washington D.C., 6 chapters. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/4553642.pdf
  2. Manolo Eduardo. 2023. Crisis globales emergentes y su impacto en la Seguridad Nacional. Centro de Altos Estudios Nacionales, Cuadernos de trabajo, (22). https://doi.org/10.58211/cdt.vi22.39
  3. Banco Mundial. 2012. Gestión de los recursos hídricos. Párr.1. https://www.bancomundial.org/es/topic/waterresourcesmanagement
  4. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  5. Agustin Garrido. 2007. El agua como fuente de conflictos estudio de la cuenca del Éufrates y Tigris. Universidad Politécnica de Catalunya. https://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2099.1/3874/55711-1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  6. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  7. Humberto Peña. 2016. “Desafíos de la seguridad hídrica en América Latina y el Caribe“. https://repositorio.cepal.org/bitstream/handle/11362/40074/S1600566_es.pdf
  8. Luisa Delgado, Marcela Torres, Antonio Tironi and Victor Marín. 2015. “Estrategia de adaptación local al cambio climático para el acceso equitativo al agua en zonas rurales de Chile.” http://66.70.189.83/handle/123456789/384
  9. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  10. Manolo Eduardo. 2022. Los acuíferos transfronterizos del Perú y Chile, prospectiva de los recursos hídricos. Centro de Altos Estudios Nacionales, Cuadernos de trabajo. 17. https://revistas.caen.edu.pe/index.php/cuadernodetrabajo/article/view/3/7
  11. Norma Olvera and Carlos Gay. 2023. Hacia una gestión integral de recursos hídricos ante sequías para la zmvm: enfoque transdisciplinario desde la complejidad. En este número de IMPLUVIUM dedicado a la Gestión Integral de Sequías se analizan: los impactos de las sequías en las ciudades y el campo, así como, 71. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David-Ortega Gaucin/publication/370632106_Impactos_de_la_sequia_en_el_campo_y_en_las_ciudades/links/645adb822edb8e5f094b069b/Impactos-de-la-sequia-en-el-campo-y-en-las-ciudades.pdf#page=71
  12. Jorge Rojas and Ricardo Barra. 2020. Seguridad hídrica: derechos de agua, escasez, impactos y percepciones ciudadanas en tiempos de cambio climático. https://biblioteca.clacso.edu.ar/clacso/otros/20200713113315/Seguridad-hidrica.pdf
  13. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  14. Banco Mundial. 2012. Gestión de los recursos hídricos. Párr.3. https://www.bancomundial.org/es/topic/waterresourcesmanagement
  15. Luis Leal. 2022. El conflicto por el agua en los ríos Éufrates y Tigris: El proyecto Anatolia del Sureste (GAP) y su repercusión en la crisis del agua en 1990. Revista Ecúmene de Ciencias Sociales 2.4 (2022): 95-107. https://revistas.uaq.mx/index.php/ecumene/article/view/709
  16. Fernando Rodríguez. 1990. Los suelos de áreas inundables de la Amazonía peruana: potencial, limitaciones y estrategia para su investigación. Folia Amazónica 2.1-2 (1990): 7-25. https://revistas.iiap.gob.pe/index.php/foliaamazonica/article/view/102
  17. Banco Mundial. 2012. Gestión de los recursos hídricos. Párr.3. https://www.bancomundial.org/es/topic/waterresourcesmanagement
  18. Patricia Urteaga, Armando Guevara Gil and Aarón Verona. 2016. El Estado frente a los conflictos por el agua, terceras jornadas de derecho de aguas. https://repositorio.pucp.edu.pe/index/bitstream/handle/123456789/172816/terceras%20jornadas%20VF.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y
  19. Manolo Eduardo. 2022. Los acuíferos transfronterizos del Perú y Chile, prospectiva de los recursos hídricos. Centro de Altos Estudios Nacionales, Cuadernos de trabajo. 17. https://revistas.caen.edu.pe/index.php/cuadernodetrabajo/article/view/3/7
  20. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  21. José Pardo de Santayana. 1997. El mundo visto desde el prisma geopolítico norteamericano. The Grand Chessboard, BasicBooks, Washington D.C., 6 chapters. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/4553642.pdf
  22. Verónica Cáceres. 2022 “La mercantilización del agua: Apuntes para la reflexión”. Márgenes. Revista de economía política 8.8. http://revistas.ungs.edu.ar/index.php/margenes/article/view/197
  23. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  24. Ana de las Mercedes Grijalva, María Jiménez and Henry Ponce. 2020. Contaminación del agua y aire por agentes químicos. http://recimundo.com/index.php/es/article/view/883
  25. Matt Landos, Mariann Lloyd Smith and Joanna Immig. 2021. Los contaminantes acuáticos en océanos y pesquerías. Ipen y National Toxics Network. https://ipen.org/sites/default/files/documents/ipen-fisheries-v1_6aw-es.pdf
  26. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  27. Ana de las Mercedes Grijalva, María Elena Jiménez y Henry Ponce. 2020. Contaminación del agua y aire por agentes químicos. http://recimundo.com/index.php/es/article/view/883
  28. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  29. José Pardo de Santayana. 1997. El mundo visto desde el prisma geopolítico norteamericano. The Grand Chessboard, BasicBooks, Washington D.C., 6 chapters. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/4553642.pdf
  30. Banco Mundial. 2012. Gestión de los recursos hídricos. Párr.4. https://www.bancomundial.org/es/topic/waterresourcesmanagement
  31. Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU). 2014. Guía para la Implementación del Convenio sobre el Agua. https://unece.org/DAM/env/water/publications/WAT_Guide_to_implementing_Convention/ece_mp.wat_39_spa.pdf
  32. Adolfo Toledo Parreño. 2009. Escenarios para crear Comités de Subcuenca en la Amazonía. Autoridad Nacional del Agua. https://repositorio.ana.gob.pe/bitstream/handle/20.500.12543/2614/ANA0001325.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  33. Ibid.Ibid.
  34. Organización de las Naciones Unidas (ONU). 2014. Guía para la Implementación del Convenio sobre el Agua. https://unece.org/DAM/env/water/publications/WAT_Guide_to_implementing_Convention/ece_mp.wat_39_spa.pdf
  35. Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego.2020. Estudio crisis de agua: Una amenaza silenciosa para el desarrollo económico. https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12543/4547
  36. Manolo Eduardo. 2022. Los acuíferos transfronterizos del Perú y Chile, prospectiva de los recursos hídricos. Centro de Altos Estudios Nacionales, Cuadernos de trabajo. 17. https://revistas.caen.edu.pe/index.php/cuadernodetrabajo/article/view/3/7
  37. Ibid.
  38. Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA). 2015. Política y estrategia nacional de recursos hídricos. https://www.ana.gob.pe/sites/default/files/publication/files/revista_aguaymas_edicion_junio_2015.pdf
  39. Tushaar Shah. 2016. Aumentando la seguridad hídrica: la clave para la implementación de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible. GWP (Suecia). https://www.gwp.org/globalassets/global/toolbox/publications/background-papers/tec22_espanol.pdf
  40. Martin Liber and Juan Bautista. 2015. Análisis, prevención y resolución de conflictos por el agua en América Latina y el Caribe. (2015). https://repositorio.cepal.org/items/6d7bcc6b-611c-4d43-a7d6-55e9652da696
  41. Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA). 2015. Política y estrategia nacional de recursos hídricos. https://www.ana.gob.pe/sites/default/files/publication/files/revista_aguaymas_edicion_junio_2015.pdf
  42. Ibid.
  43. Rafael Melgarejo. 2015. Foro: Legislación del agua en el Perú. Infraestructura hidráulica y aguas subterráneas. http://www.lamolina.edu.pe/institutos/ICTA/pdf/5PonenciaRafaelMelgarejo.pdf
  44. Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA). 2021. Modernización de la Gestión de los Recursos Hídricos en el Perú. https://repositorio.ana.gob.pe/bitstream/handle/20.500.12543/3473/ANA0001892.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  45. Adolfo Toledo. 2009. Escenarios para crear Comités de Subcuenca en la Amazonía. Autoridad Nacional del Agua. https://repositorio.ana.gob.pe/bitstream/handle/20.500.12543/2614/ANA0001325.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  46. Ibid.
  47. Rafael Melgarejo. 2015. Foro: Legislación del agua en el Perú. Infraestructura hidráulica y aguas subterráneas. http://www.lamolina.edu.pe/institutos/ICTA/pdf/5PonenciaRafaelMelgarejo.pdf
  48. Bernos Tanaka and Michelle Akemi. 2020. “Hidrodiplomacia: Consideraciones para una adecuada gestión integrada de recursos hídricos en el marco de la cooperación amazónica y sus implicancias para el Perú.”. http://repositorio.adp.edu.pe/bitstream/handle/ADP/160/2020%20Tesis%20Bernos%20Tanaka%2C%20Michelle.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  49. Autoridad Nacional del Agua (ANA) y Ministerio de Desarrollo Agrario y Riego. 2021. Uso y aprovechamiento de recursos hídricos en el Perú. https://repositorio.ana.gob.pe/bitstream/handle/20.500.12543/428/ANA0000214.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
  50. José Farfán, Edilberto Núñez and Alberto Torres. 2016. Estrategias para la modernización del Ejército del Perú (tesis de maestría). Universidad del Pacífico. https://repositorio.up.edu.pe/bitstream/handle/11354/1146/Manuel_Tesis_maestria_2016.pdf?sequence=13
  51. Carlos Álvarez. 2023. “Economía de los recursos naturales a escala global”. (2023). https://uvadoc.uva.es/handle/10324/62266
  52. Ibid.
  53. Rafael Melgarejo. 2015. Foro: Legislación del agua en el Perú. Infraestructura hidráulica y aguas subterráneas. http://www.lamolina.edu.pe/institutos/ICTA/pdf/5PonenciaRafaelMelgarejo.pdf
  54. Manolo Eduardo. 2023. Crisis globales emergentes y su impacto en la Seguridad Nacional. Centro de Altos Estudios Nacionales, Cuadernos de trabajo, (22). https://doi.org/10.58211/cdt.vi22.39
  55. Banco Mundial. 2012. Gestión de los recursos hídricos. Párr.5. https://www.bancomundial.org/es/topic/waterresourcesmanagement

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The ideas contained in this analysis are the sole responsibility of the author, without necessarily reflecting the thoughts of the CEEEP or the Peruvian Army.

Image: CEEEP

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