National Security, International Relations, and Social Welfare in the Digital Age

This article was initially published in the Revista Seguridad y Poder Terrestre
Vol. 3 No. 1 (2024): January to March


The focus of this article is on the digital revolution and its influence on national security, international relations, and social welfare in the Peruvian territory. It analyses the challenges and possibilities that digitalization poses in areas such as cybersecurity, disinformation, data safeguarding, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and collaboration at the international level. In addition, it highlights the favorable impact on economic development, the optimization of public services and the active participation of citizens. The article examines emerging threats in the digital age, including cybercrime, cyber espionage, and weaknesses in critical infrastructure. Key strategies and government measures to address these threats are proposed, emphasizing the importance of public education and international cooperation in the field of cybersecurity.

Keywords: Digital Transformation, National Security, Cybersecurity, Disinformation, International Relations, Social Welfare, Cybercrime, Digital Security Education, Peru.


National safeguarding stands out as a primary concern for any country, and Peru is no exception to this reality. Throughout its history, it has faced a variety of challenges in the field of defense, from armed conflicts to transnational threats. However, in the last decade, an innovative factor began to transform the security landscape in the country: the digital revolution.

Within the context of national defense, it is vital to recognize that digital evolution introduced a new set of challenges and opportunities that demand careful evaluation and attention by any nation. National protection is not limited solely to the defense of physical borders and military action, but encompasses the security of digital assets, critical infrastructure, and sensitive information.

Within the framework of digital transformation, it is essential to understand that this accelerated process significantly altered the dynamics of national defense at the global level, with Peru being part of this transformation. The widespread adoption of digital technologies has given rise to new threats and challenges that demand careful and strategic attention from States. It will then explore how digital transformation influenced national defense, international relations, and social welfare in Peru, supporting these claims with pertinent current references.

Challenges and Opportunities of Digital Transformation in Homeland Security

  1. Cybersecurity and Cyberterrorism: With the rise of digital connectivity, cybersecurity-related threats such as cyberterrorism have taken on a prominent role in national security concerns. In Peru, the transition to digital has led to the emergence of cyberterrorism as a tangible and ever-growing threat. Malicious actors can take advantage of weaknesses in digital infrastructures to execute cyberattacks that could have devastating consequences for national security. These attacks range from the disruption of critical services to the theft of sensitive information and the destabilization of the country.[1] [2] [3]
  2. Disinformation and Propaganda: The digital transformation has accelerated the spread of disinformation and propaganda through social media and online platforms. These elements can be employed by foreign or domestic actors to impact public perception and undermine trust in government institutions and political stability.[4]
  3. Data Protection and Privacy: The massive collection of personal data online raises concerns around citizens’ privacy and the safeguarding of sensitive information. Cyberattacks focused on stealing sensitive information can have significant repercussions for both national security and the privacy of citizens.[5]
  4. Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics: The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology and advanced data analytics acquires considerable relevance for security agencies by efficiently identifying threats and detecting patterns of suspicious behavior. However, technological advancement in this field presents the challenge of making it more difficult to identify and counter cyber threats.[6] [7]
  5. International Collaboration: In an increasingly interconnected world, international cooperation in cybersecurity has become essential. Countries can share information and resources to address cyber threats more effectively.[8]
  6. Cyber Education and Awareness: Public education and awareness about cybersecurity is crucial. It is essential to inform citizens about safe online practices and the protection of their personal data. [9] [10] [11]


Impact of Digital Transformation on International Relations

Within the framework of digital transformation, international relations underwent significant changes. The expansion of social media and digital communication platforms had a profound impact on the dynamics of relations between countries and international actors. It will then delve into how the digital revolution affected international relations, backing up these claims with relevant concepts, theories, and references.

  1. Spread of Disinformation and Propaganda: The digital transformation facilitated the rapid spread of misinformation and propaganda internationally. State and non-state actors can use social media and online platforms to spread biased or false narratives that can have a negative impact on perceptions of other countries and political and social stability.[12]
  2. Influence on International Politics: The ability to influence public perception and global opinion, through online disinformation campaigns, resulted in an increase in the importance of information warfare in international relations. States and other actors can use digital strategies to advance their political agendas and weaken their opponents.[13]
  3. New Forms of Digital Diplomacy: Digital diplomacy has evolved to become an essential tool in international relations. Leaders and diplomats use social media and online public diplomacy to communicate directly with global audiences and advance their foreign policy goals.[14]


Positive Impact of Digital Transformation in Peru

  1. Economic Growth: The adoption of digital technologies boosted economic growth in Peru by opening up new opportunities for businesses and improving efficiency in various sectors. The digitalization of business processes and the promotion of the digital economy contributed to increased productivity and competitiveness.[15]
  2. Improving Public Services: The digitalization of public services improved the effectiveness and accessibility of government services for Peruvian citizens. The implementation of online systems for procedures and services simplified processes and reduced bureaucracy.[16]
  3. Citizen Participation: The digital transformation facilitated citizen participation in decision-making and accountability. Online platforms and social media provided citizens with a more active voice in politics and society.[17]


Impact on Social Welfare

Digitalization expanded opportunities for social welfare in Peru, although it presented challenges. On the one hand, it facilitated access to educational resources, health care and public services; On the other hand, it widened the digital divide and generated new threats to human rights.

Opportunities for Social Welfare

  1. Access to Educational Resources: Digital technology has made online educational resources more accessible, allowing a greater number of Peruvians to benefit from formal and informal education. Online learning platforms, such as Coursera and edX, expanded training and professional development opportunities.[18] [19]
  2. Telemedicine and Healthcare: Telemedicine improved access to health care, especially in remote areas. Online healthcare has proven to be effective in assessing and monitoring chronic diseases.[20]
  3. Digital Public Services: Technological innovations streamlined government procedures and the delivery of public services, simplifying them, and making them more efficient. Platforms such as “Tramit Simple” empower citizens to carry out procedures online, saving time and money. In addition, they improve transparency by providing clear and up-to-date information on procedures and services.[21] [22]

Challenges and Threats to Social Welfare

  1. Digital Divide: Despite the increase in Internet access, the digital divide persists in Peru. Rural and vulnerable populations still experience limited access to technology and the benefits of digitalization.[23]
  2. Data Security: The increasing reliance on digital technology has increased the risk of data breaches and citizens’ privacy. Cyberattacks can compromise sensitive information, such as credit card numbers, email addresses, and passwords. [24] [25]
  3. Social Inequality: The widening of the digital divide and the concentration of online resources can exacerbate social inequality, as not everyone has equal access to online opportunities.[26]


Emerging Threats in Digital Transformation and its Evolution

The adoption of digital technologies had a positive impact on Peruvian society, contributing to economic growth, improving the provision of public services, and facilitating citizen participation. According to the Telefónica Foundation report, the use of digital technologies by companies increased from 30% in 2010 to 75% in 2023.[27]

However, the digitalization of Peruvian society has opened new doors for various cyber threats that can directly affect national security and the daily lives of its citizens. These can be aimed at stealing information, causing damage, or disrupting services.

The evolution of cyber threats was closely linked to the development of technology. As they become more complex, the threats to them also become more sophisticated. This phenomenon poses significant challenges, as the infiltration of criminal groups into the digital space can have devastating consequences for national security.

  1. Cybercrime: Digitalization has simplified the perpetration of cybercrimes, such as personal data theft, online fraud, and ransomware attacks. These crimes can have a significant impact on the security of citizens and the country’s economy.[28]
  2. Cyber Espionage: State and non-state actors can take advantage of digitalization to carry out cyber espionage operations, compromising the country’s national security and sovereignty.[29]
  3. Vulnerabilities in Critical Infrastructures: The integration of critical infrastructure systems with digital technology increases their susceptibility to possible cyberattacks. This could trigger the disruption of essential services, such as power, water, and transport supplies. According to a report by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) published in 2023, entitled “Cyberattacks on logistics and critical infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean”, 11 cybersecurity incidents in logistics and critical infrastructure were recorded in Peru between 2020 and 2022, out of a total of 82 incidents documented in several countries.[30]

Below is a table that reflects some of the aspects and percentages associated with how Peru is in terms of information security compared to other countries in the region and the world:

Aspects Peru Latam Global
It includes the cybersecurity area from the planning stage in its new business initiatives. 27% 32% 36%
He says crisis prevention and compliance remain the primary drivers for increasing the cybersecurity budget. 81% 81% 86%
You have experienced one significant incident by employees in the last 12 months. 70% 67%  


The cybersecurity budget is used for digital transformation programs. 16% 16% 14%
He has extreme confidence in cyberattack mitigation measures. 8% 7% 4%
Cybersecurity leaders have the ability to financially quantify the impact of incidents. 9% 9% 7%

Source: Authors.[31]

Addressing Emerging Threats in the Digital Age: Key Strategies

  1. Training and Awareness: It is essential to carry out the training of citizens and professionals in digital security. Education and awareness about cyber threats can help prevent attacks and encourage the safe use of technology.[32] [33]
  2. Investment in Cybersecurity: Investment in cybersecurity in Peru is crucial to safeguard critical infrastructure and national security. This ensures the continuity of essential services and the protection of sensitive data. In addition, it enables compliance with regulations, the development of local capacities, and international collaboration, strengthening the stability and security of the country.[34]
  3. Effective Regulation: Government regulation becomes necessary to address cyber threats. Strong laws and regulations can set safety standards and punish those who engage in illegal online activities.[35]
  4. Regulation of Digital Platforms: Establish regulations and standards for online platforms, limiting the spread of false and biased information.[36]
  5. Fact-Checking: Promote media literacy and fact-checking to help people discern misinformation from fact-checked.[37] [38]
  6. National and International Collaboration: Collaboration between government, the private sector, the military sector, and civil society is essential to combat cyber threats. International cooperation is also crucial in addressing transnational cyber threats.[39] [40]
  7. Continuing Education: Digital security education should be an ongoing process, adapting to ever-evolving threats. This includes training cybersecurity professionals and promoting best practices at all ages.[41] [42]


Government Measures to Address Digital Threats in Peru

As part of the government’s response to emerging threats in the digital age in Peru, it is essential to examine the measures and policies implemented to address these challenges.

  1. Cybercrime Law: The Cybercrime Law, represented by Law No. 30096 enacted in 2013 and subsequently amended by Law No. 30171 in 2014, plays a key role in the fight against cybercrime in Peru. This legislation aims to criminalize various cybercrimes, including theft of sensitive data, dissemination of misinformation, and terrorist propaganda. In addition to defining these crimes, the law establishes penalties for those who commit them, thus providing a robust legal framework to address cyber threats.[43]
  2. National Center for Digital Security (CNSD): The CNSD, established in 2020 by Emergency Decree No. 007-2020, plays a central role in Peru’s digital security. This government body is responsible for coordinating and supervising actions related to cybersecurity in the country. It is also dedicated to raising awareness and public education about cyber threats, promoting best practices in digital security.[44]


Additional Steps to Strengthen Cybersecurity in Peru

  1. Cybersecurity Training: Digital security training is presented as one of the essential areas that the Peruvian government must address. This involves investing in education and coaching programs aimed at government officials and public sector professionals. Since cybersecurity is an ever-evolving field, ensuring employees are up to date on the latest threats and techniques is critical to maintaining national security. [45] [46] [47]
  2. Development of a Comprehensive Strategy: Along with training, the Peruvian government should develop a comprehensive digital security strategy that addresses all facets of the digital threat. This strategy would encompass collaboration with the private sector, promotion of best practices in cybersecurity within companies, public awareness, and cooperation with other nations to address transnational threats.[48] [49]



Digitalization in Peru has generated new threats to national security, such as cyberespionage and cyberterrorism. These, increasingly sophisticated, can have a significant impact on the country. In this context, in order to address these challenges, it is imperative that Peru strengthen its approach to cybersecurity in a comprehensive manner; it is crucial to have the resources and capacity to respond quickly and effectively to cyber threats. This involves collaborating with partner nations, enhancing internal competencies in this field, and carrying out awareness-raising programs among the population.

In addition, it is essential to highlight that international cooperation is essential to share information and resources in the fight against cyber threats, as cyberspace does not recognize national borders. Working with other countries becomes crucial to protect each other. Likewise, public education plays a key role in raising awareness about cyber threats and how to mitigate them. Individuals need to know how to protect their personal information and how to identify and prevent cyberattacks.

Finally, to ensure national security in the digital age, Peru must protect its core assets, such as critical infrastructure, sensitive data, and citizens’ privacy. Therefore, it is crucial for the country to strengthen its focus in the area of cybersecurity.


  1. Bruce Schneier, Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World. 2018 (Accessed October 9, 2023).
  2. Mehmet Bastug, Ismail Onat and Ahmet Guler, “Threat Construction and Framing of Cyberterrorism in the U.S. News Media”, International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence and Cybercrime (March 31, 2023), (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  3. Jeppe Teglskov Jacobsen, “Cyberterrorism: Four Reasons for its Absence – So Far”, Perspectives on Terrorism 16, n.° 5 (October 2022). (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  4. Gobierno de España, “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito de la Seguridad Nacional: Propuestas de la sociedad civil”, Departamento de Seguridad Nacional (September 2022), (Accessed October 9, 2023).
  5. Ibid.
  6. Erwin Adi, Zubair Baig and Sherali Zeadally, “Artificial Intelligence for Cybersecurity: Offensive Tactics, Mitigation Techniques and Future Directions”, Applied Cybersecurity & Internet Governance 1, n.° 1 (November 4, 2022), 1–23, (Accessed October 9, 2023).
  7. Boris Saavedra, “Ciberseguridad en América Latina: Retos, Preocupaciones y Oportunidades”, CEEEP (December 2023), 193–218, (Accessed October 12, 2023).
  8. European Union Agency for Cybersecurity, “ENISA Threat Landscape 2022”, Enisa (November 3, 2022), (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  9. Gobierno de España, “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito …”
  10. Council of Europe, “Privacy and Security”, Digital Citizenship Education DCE (2023), (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  11. Gobierno de España. “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito…”
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid.
  14. Jovan Kurbalija, “Digital Diplomacy”, Diplo (July 10, 2023) (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  15. Banco Mundial, “Informe Anual 2023: Una nueva era de desarrollo”, Banco Mundial (2023). (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  16. Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas, “Plan de Gobierno Digital 2023-2025”, Plataforma del Estado Peruano (February 28, 2023), (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  17. Universidad de Ciencias y Humanidades, “El impacto de la Sociedad de la Información en el Perú”, UCH (May 17, 2023), (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  18. Flores Cueto, Juan José, Ronald Hernández y Rafael Garay Argandoña, “Tecnologías de información: Acceso a internet y brecha digital en Perú”, Revista Venezolana de Gerencia 25, n.° 90 (2020), 504–27,, (Accessed October 13, 2023).
  19. Matta Huerta, et al, “Aprendizaje autónomo y recursos educativos digitales en estudiantes del I ciclo de una universidad privada de Lima”, Horizontes Revista de Investigación en Ciencias de la Educación 7, n.º 28 (February 9, 2023), 712–27, (Accessed October 13, 2023).
  20. Daniela Chueke, “Prevalencia de la Telemedicina y la Telesalud en los Hospitales de América Latina”, Telehealth and Medicine Today 8 (February 3, 2023), 406-410, Available on (Accessed October 13, 2023).
  21. Pepe Huamán y Cristian Medina, “Transformación digital en la administración pública: desafíos para una gobernanza activa en el Perú”, Comuni@cción: Revista de Investigación en Comunicación y Desarrollo 13, n.° 2 (June 30, 2022), 93–105, (Accessed October 13, 2023).
  22. Viviana García, “Peru: Cybersecurity”, DataGuidance (May 2022), (Accessed October 13, 2023).
  23. Juan Flores, Ronald Hernández y Rafael Garay, “Tecnologías de información: Acceso a internet y brecha digital en Perú”, Revista Venezolana de Gerencia 25, n.° 90 (2020), 504–27, (Accessed October 13, 2023).
  24. Gobierno de España, “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito de la Seguridad Nacional: Propuestas de la sociedad civil”, Departamento de Seguridad Nacional (September 2022), (Accessed October 9, 2023).
  25. Viviana García, “Peru: Cybersecurity.” DataGuidance (May 2022) (Accessed October 13, 2023).
  26. Juan Flores, R. Hernández y Rafael Garay, “Tecnologías de información: Acceso a internet…).
  27. Fundación Telefónica, “Sociedad Digital en América Latina 2023”, Fundación Telefónica Perú (August 2023), (Accessed September 28, 2023).
  28. ESET, “Security Report: Latin America 2023”, ESET (August 31, 2023) (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  29. Ibid.
  30. Rodrigo Mariano Díaz y Georgina Núñez, “Ciberataques a la logística y la infraestructura crítica en América Latina y el Caribe”, CEPAL (2023), (Accessed October 12, 2023).
  31. Ernst & Young, “¿Cómo pasar de una seguridad aislada a una integrada?: Cerrando la brecha de relaciones en la organización para construir un programa de seguridad alineado al negocio. Encuesta Global de seguridad de la información 2019-2020”, E&Y (2020), (Accessed October 20, 2023).
  32. Gobierno de España, “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito de la Seguridad Nacional: Propuestas de la sociedad civil”, Departamento de Seguridad Nacional (September 2022), (Accessed October 9, 2023).
  33. Council of Europe. “Privacy and Security”, Digital Citizenship Education DCE (2023), (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  34. Quevedo Lezama y Christian Rafael, “Ciberdefensa y ciberseguridad en el Perú: realidad y retos en torno a la capacidad de las FF. AA. para neutralizar ciberataques que atenten contra la seguridad nacional”, Revista de Ciencia e Investigación en Defensa – CAEN 4, n.° 1 (February 17, 2023), 55–76, (Accessed October 12, 2023).
  35. Alejandra Dinegro Martínez, “El Desafío de regular las plataformas en Perú: Iniciativas legislativas para regular el empleo en las plataformas digitales de taxi y delivery 2000 – 2021”, FES (September 2022), (Accessed October 12, 2023).
  36. Ibid.
  37. Gobierno de España, “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito …”.
  38. Council of Europe, “Privacy and Security”, Digital Citizenship Education DCE (2023) (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  39. Gobierno de España. “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito…”
  40. Christian Quevedo, “Ciberdefensa y ciberseguridad en el Perú: realidad y retos en torno a la capacidad de las FF. AA. para neutralizar ciberataques que atenten contra la seguridad nacional”, Revista de Ciencia e Investigación en Defensa – CAEN 4, n.° 1 (February 17, 2023), 55–76, (Accessed October 12, 2023).
  41. Gobierno de España. “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito…”
  42. Council of Europe, “Privacy and Security”. Digital Citizenship Education DCE (2023), (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  43. Congreso de la República del Perú, “Ley que modifica la Ley 30096: Ley de Delitos Informáticos”, Archivo Digital de la Legislación del Perú (March 14, 2014) (Accessed September 28, 2023).
  44. Gobierno del Perú, “Decreto de Urgencia N.º 007-2020: Decreto de Urgencia que aprueba el Marco de Confianza Digital y dispone Medidas para su Fortalecimiento”, El Diario Oficial El Peruano, (January 9, 2020) (Accessed September 28, 2023).
  45. Gobierno de España, “Lucha contra las campañas de desinformación en el ámbito…”
  46. Boris Saavedra, “Ciberseguridad en América Latina: Retos, Preocupaciones y Oportunidades”, CEEEP (December 2023), 193–218, (Accessed October 12, 2023).
  47. Council of Europe, “Privacy and Security”, Digital Citizenship Education DCE (2023), (Accessed October 11, 2023).
  48. Presidencia del Consejo de Ministros, “Estrategia Nacional de Seguridad y Confianza Digital”, Plataforma del Estado Peruano, (June 30, 2021), (Accessed October 13, 2023).
  49. Juan Ormachea, “Estrategias integradas de ciberseguridad para el fortalecimiento de la seguridad nacional”, Revista de Ciencia e Investigación en Defensa-CAEN 1, n.° 4 (October 17, 2020), 36–48, (Accessed October 13, 2023).


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The ideas contained in this analysis are the sole responsibility of the author, without necessarily reflecting the thoughts of the CEEEP or the Peruvian Army.

Image: CEEEP