Venezuelan Migration in Peru: Perceptions and Realities

By: Paul Vera Delzo (23/03/2023).

The deep crisis in Venezuela has generated the largest migratory flow in Latin America. It is estimated that, by the end of 2022, Peru -the second host country after Colombia- will have a population of Venezuelan migrants and refugees close to 1.45 million. In this regard, it is clear that no population is prepared either to forcibly leave their country of origin -due to the critical existing crisis- or to welcome a large number of immigrants in such a short time, generating a context of extreme vulnerability for the migrant population, as well as discomfort and even rejection in the host or receiving population. Achieving the full integration of the Venezuelan population into Peruvian society and economy requires the decisive involvement of the State and civil society with a view to promoting an intensive and progressive change of mentality among Peruvians (moving from rejection to empathy) through education and culture. Otherwise, situations could arise that seriously affect not only security, but also the stability required for the integral development of the country.

European and Maghrebi Dilemmas in the Western Sahel

By: Carlos Echeverría Jesús (14/03/2023).

Two successive coups in Mali and two in Burkina Faso in recent times, consummating in both countries two military-led governments that take us back to old coup scenarios in Africa, make relations with both countries increasingly difficult for Western states that, with France at the head in terms of military contribution over the past decade, had been supporting their fight against powerful jihadist actors. The progressive deployment of Russia, both by regular means and with irregulars belonging to the private military company Wagner, and the efforts of two Maghreb countries, Morocco and Algeria, to reposition themselves in such a convulsive scenario, characterize the present and shape the future of this sub-region.

Cybersecurity in Latin America: Challenges, Concerns and Opportunities

By: Boris Saavedra (09/03/2023).

The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified the evolution of global geopolitics, and emerging digital technology has become its center of gravity. The lack of cybersecurity policies and strategies to address the vulnerabilities to freedom of expression in cyberspace, the use of Artificial Intelligence, 5G wireless communications, critical infrastructures, cyber diplomacy, cryptocurrencies, as well as cloud technology for data storage and use are important sources of threats and challenges for cybersecurity in Latin America. This situation has created great opportunities for the cybersecurity sector to respond to the increase in attacks in cyberspace, including a growing number of companies that require such services. In this context, this article analyzes -politically and strategically- the threats, challenges and opportunities presented by cybersecurity in Latin America.

PRC Engagement with Central America – An Update

By: Evan Ellis (07/03/2023).

Central America has become a strategic area for China’s activities both because of its proximity to the United States and because of the economic, commercial and logistical momentum developed in recent years. Likewise, this region is important to expand Chinese geopolitical influence on the case of Taiwan, due to the interest of President Xi Jinping who wants to politically put this country under his control before the end of his third term in 2027. The Asian nation is taking advantage of the leftist governments in Central America to accentuate its international political position, achieving changes in the diplomatic recognition of Taiwan to the People’s Republic of China by nations such as Panama, El Salvador and Nicaragua, a situation that is increasing tensions with the United States, the same that defends the sovereignty of Taiwan.

Digital Transformation Applied in the Brazilian Army and in the National Territory

By: Leandro Mendes da Costa (02/03/2023).

Digital transformation is an evident reality in the world. In this regard, some South American countries are immersed in this process of digital evolution. Among them, Brazil presents some positive examples in its public management of digital transformation implementation, while in Peru the GeoPeru platform stands out as a success in data integration. Thus, this article aims to show the results of technological implementations conducted by the Federal Government of Brazil and the Brazilian Army, related to digital transformation, which generated positive effects in public and private management.

Evolution and Impact of Gangs in Central America and Brazil

By: Douglas Farah and Marianne Richardson (23/02/2023).

Two prison-based gangs ­–the Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) in Central America and the Primeiro Comando da Capital (PCC) in Brazil­­– amassed military, economic and political power, as well as extensive territorial control, to the degree that they now pose existential threats to the states in which they operate. They now form key components of formidable transnational criminal structures with deep ties to drug trafficking and other criminal activities on multiple continents. The groups honed their rise using different models and retain significant differences in structure and capabilities. Despite this, both are now key drivers of corruption, violence, criminal activity and alternative governance structures that pose a significant challenge to democratic governance across Latin America. These violent non-state armed groups are rooted in their home communities. In many places they are viewed as more legitimate authorities than the state, making effective action against them extremely complex and difficult.

Influence of the French and American Reforms on the Organizational Culture of the Peruvian Army

Por: Luis David Sánchez Velásquez (09/02/2023).

This paper analyzes the military missions that -in the 20th century- generated two turning points in the Peruvian Army and whose thinking has transcended time, permeating the organizational culture of its officers. To appreciate the influence of these military reforms on Army officers, the context of each process has been evaluated by means of documentary review and interviews. As a result, we found that the French reform generated an officer with rigidity and lack of flexibility, while the U.S. reform generated a more analytical officer for decision-making. Finally, we concluded that the Army officer, although analytical and meticulous, is rigid in the fulfillment of his activities, following a rigid format.

From Regional to Global. The Consolidation of Criminal Convergence in South America

By: Keith Ditcham y Martin Verrier (07/02/2023).

For decades, some South American countries -such as Brazil or Colombia- have suffered high levels of criminal violence, eroding the democratic governance of cities and regions across the continent. Often, this violence has been associated with drug trafficking, especially cocaine. However, the consolidation of this trafficking has led to a situation where criminal organizations have consolidated contact networks and alliances with other organizations, causing trafficking and smuggling routes to overlap, as well as enabling the emergence of ungoverned enclaves that act as facilitators and enhancers of organized crime. Many cocaine trafficking routes often coincide with those of illegal timber trafficking. Criminal organizations weave alliances with each other, both locally and internationally, including terrorist organizations such as Hezbollah. This scenario represents a new challenge for the States of the region that must implement changes to successfully face this phenomenon.

Importance of Resilience Development in Military Personnel

By: Jaime Rodríguez Simón (01/02/2023).

In the Peruvian Army, as in other institutions, the term resilience is constantly mentioned, understood as the ability of each human being to recover from complex or dangerous situations, and advance in search of positive results. The military, given their style of work, are exposed to constant risks, which can generate physical and mental harm. However, by their very training, military personnel usually have the ability to overcome these adversities, demonstrating resilience. In that sense, this article analyzes the concept of resilience, as well as existing resilience development programs in the United States and United Kingdom Armed Forces, in order to understand their importance, scope and impact. Finally, some recommendations are provided for the implementation of similar programs in the Peruvian Army.

The Strategic Role of Latin America in a Global Conflict over Taiwan

By: Evan Ellis (26/01/2023).

This work examines the role that Latin America might play as an object of Chinese military activities, in the context of a future struggle with the United States and allied Western powers over Taiwan. It argues that the orientation of People’s Republic of China (PRC) leadership, its growing military power, diplomatic isolation of Taiwan and other factors are making such a conflict increasingly possible. It finds that Latin America and the Caribbean present strategic diplomatic, economic, and military objectives that the PRC will be tempted to exploit in the context of such a struggle, including digital architectures, the space domain, ports and airfields, and other strategic geography.