Artificial Intelligence in National Security: Legal Limits

By: Jean Carlo Cuba (11/01/2022).

Terms such as big data, mechatronics and sensorization, decision making, neuromorphic computing and computer perception are some of the concepts and technologies integrated into National Security that are constantly evolving. These scientific advances have the existing national and international legislation as the only limit to avoid their indiscriminate use. In this sense, this article analyzes the current and possible uses of Artificial Intelligence as a means that are added to different attack and defense strategies within the framework of National Security, as well as whether the existing legislation to limit its use complies with its purpose.

Professional Skills: An unavoidable requirement in public management

By: Emilio Cam (29/12/2021).

After briefly showing the general scenario of the selection process of trusted officials in public management, this article highlights that civic culture is the first condition that every servant must have; However, the Civil Service Law indicates that the way in which trusted servants are appointed is done without competition and on the basis of the discretionary power of the official who has that power. This situation not only violates and affects the meritocracy contemplated in that same Law, including ethics in public management, but also allows hiring servants without requiring or evaluating the Professional Competencies designed for the different positions. In this way, the thesis is confirmed that by not requiring adequate professional skills in the process of appointing trusted officials, the principle of meritocracy, ethics in public management, political culture and decision-making are affected of relevant aspects, including Security and National Defense.

Challenges Facing Chile’s Next Government: Part 2

By: Evan Ellis (18/12/2021).

In Part 1 of this work, I described the challenges facing Gabriel Boric and José Antonio Kast—the two candidates in the Chilean presidential runoff on Sunday, December 19—as they attempt to win the election and navigate the politics of the Constituent Assembly. The election is only the beginning of a turbulent time for Chile’s political and economic future, as whichever candidate wins will face obstacles in implementing his agenda.

Challenges Facing Chile’s Next Government: Part 1

By: Evan Ellis (14/12/2021).

On December 19, Chile will conduct the second round of its presidential election, which will likely decide the direction of the country and shape the political dynamics of the region. The eloquent, left-oriented former student protest leader Gabriel Boric will face off against social conservative José Antonio Kast. It is a highly symbolic contest, posing a positive, if selective, narrative about Chile’s past and its remarkable transformation, against a new generation’s discontent with some parts of that transformation and the problems it has generated or failed to resolve.

Nicaragua’s Flip to China: What Does It Mean for the Region?

By: Evan Ellis (10/12/2021).

Nicaragua’s diplomatic flip from Taiwan to the People’s Republic of China (PRC), announced on December 9, was almost inevitable, but it will accelerate a worrisome trend in parts of the Western Hemisphere closest to the U.S. to a China-funded form of authoritarian populism. That growing threat, in a part of the hemisphere once considered politically allied or at least compliant with the U.S., will also include secondary risks from an expanded presence by other U.S. rivals such as Russia and Iran, expanded drug and other organized crime flows through the region, and decreased security cooperation. That combination will have grave strategic consequences for the United States.

The Political Warfare of the People’s Republic of China: Effects on maritime security in Ibero-America

By: Andrés González Martín (09/12/2021).

The political warfare sustained by the PRC the competition between the great powers does not manifest itself in the form of behaviours, such as territorial conquest or war, but as the accumulation of political, economic, military and cultural influence and, often, as the subtle application of coercion to obtain geopolitical or geoeconomics advantages. Political warfare is an ongoing process of conquering small advantages below the threshold of the direct use of force, where the grey zone expands. Political warfare seeks to arrive without stridency at a situation of ‘fait accompli’.

The Coming Xiomara Castro Presidency in Honduras: Implications for the US and the Region

By: Evan Ellis (25/11/2021).

On November 28, 2021, Honduras will elect a new President, a new Congress, and 20 representatives to the Central American Parliament (commonly known as Parlacen). Polls indicate that Libre party candidate Xiomara Castro, whose platform pledges to refound Honduras as a “socialist democratic state”, is likely to beat out her principal rivals (National Party candidate Nazry Asfura, and Liberal Party candidate Yani Rosenthal) to become Honduras’ next President.

Cyber ​​Defense Sector Policy: an urgent need

By: Ernesto Castillo Fuerman (18/11/2021).

The critical infrastructures of a country, the command and control systems, as well as the weapons systems have computer platforms for their operation; However, as a result of a cyberattack, these platforms could become useless and paralyze a country, putting National Security, Defense and Development at risk. Therefore, it is essential to have a Sectorial Cyber ​​Defense Policy, whose objectives and guidelines allow strengthening the development of capacities to neutralize threats and attacks in and through cyberspace, promoting culture, education, as well as Investigation, Development and Innovation. (I + D + i) in cyber defense among the Armed Institutions. This article analyzes the situation of Cyber ​​Defense in Peru and proposes the statement, as well as the objectives and guidelines of the necessary Sectorial Cyber ​​Defense Policy that the Peruvian State should have.

Jihadist Violence in Mozambique and the International Response

By: Alba Vega Tapia y Jesús Díez Alcalde (09/11/2021).

In recent years, jihadist actions in Mozambique have evolved rapidly and dramatically, showing an escalation of attacks, violence and brutality that has no signs of improving. Deep social discontent, feelings of frustration and lack of expectations have become the perfect breeding ground for this jihadist movement to take root, causing an unprecedented humanitarian crisis in one of the most impoverished regions of Africa and demonstrating the rapid spread of jihadism in Africa. International cooperation has begun to deploy military missions in Mozambique; however, the security measures will not be enough to end this international threat that has settled in the north of the country.

Panama’s Maritime Business and the Evolving Strategic Landscape

By: R. Evan Ellis y Eddie Tapiero(27/10/2021).

Panama’s maritime business is being transformed by the complex interaction between multiple factors. These include the growing economic and political power of China and US-China competition, the long-term structural impacts of Covid-19 on both the region and global trade, US policies to contain immigration from the Northern Triangle, climate change, the rise of leftist populism in the region, the China-Taiwan competition, technology trends, evolution of regional infrastructure, and the restructuring of the maritime shipping industry itself. Demand for the Canal and associated ports will likely remain strong, but the composition of that traffic, the routes, the operators, and the role of complementary and competing facilities elsewhere in the region will likely transform dramatically in the coming generation.