He has more than 30 years of experience as an academic and consultant on security and defense issues. He is an adjunct professor at the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies at the National Defense University (United States) and an analyst at the Center for International Security at the Francisco de Vitoria University (Spain). Between 2010 and 2014, he was an advisor to the Colombian Minister of Defense. During that period, he contributed his knowledge to the planning and execution of the military campaign “Sword of Honor.” In addition, he participated in studies for the transformation of the Colombian armed forces to adapt them to the new strategic scenario created by the peace agreement with the FARC guerrillas. He has developed projects for USAID on rural security and advised humanitarian NGOs on stabilization operations. He has also advised on the design of security sector reform processes in several Latin American countries. He holds a PhD (Laude) in Political Science from the Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset – Universidad Complutense (Madrid). His publications include articles in Foreign Affairs, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, and other academic journals.